Rivers and Dams in Kerala
Prepared for Kerala PSC Exams – Get Questions, Short Notes & Study Materials
This article deals with rivers in Kerala. PSC questions related to rivers, dams, waterfalls and hydroelectric projects in Kerala can be easily answered once you read this short notes and study materials thoroughly. This post is written in continuation with study materials on the geography of Kerala which is according to the syllabus of most of the Kerala PSC examinations. This will be helpful for assistant engineer exams, KAS exam, deputy collector exam, LDC, Secretariat assistant exam, lecture exams etc. While reading this article, try to remember the words which are given in bold letters so that your learning process will be easier. Short notes for rivers in Kerala are as follows.
Rivers in Kerala
Kerala is popularly known as the land of rivers, lagoons, and backwaters. Western ghats are the originating source of all major rivers of Kerala. However, there is no river in Kerala similar to great Indian rivers like Ganga and Brahmaputra which runs more than 300 Km. According to the government of Kerala, a water channel which is more 15 Km long is considered a river. In this regard, there are 44 rivers in Kerala. Among this 41 are west flowing rivers and 3 are east flowing rivers. The 3 east flowing rivers in Kerala are Kabani, Bhavani, and Pambar. All the east-flowing rivers in Kerala are the tributaries of Kaveri river. Kabani is flowing through Wayanad and into Karnataka. Bhavani and Pambar are flowing into Tamilnadu. Kerala has 11 rivers which are more than 100 Km long. Muvattupuzha is the river which flows through most of the districts in Kerala. It is flowing through 4 districts. In Kerala, most of the rivers descents into the Arabian sea. Periyar and Bharathapuzha were the only two rivers in Kerala which are having a length of more than 200 Km. There are 4 rivers in Kerala which are having a length of more than 150 Km, they are Periyar, Bharathapuzha, Pamba, and Chaliyar. The rivers which are having a length of less than 20 Km in Kerala are Ariyur river (17 Km), Ramapuram river (19 Km) and Manjeshwaram river (16 Km). Some of the important rivers of the 44 rivers in Kerala are discussed below. The rivers which are not mentioned here are not that important for Kerala PSC examination.
It is the longest (in terms of length) and the largest (in terms of volume of water) river flowing in Kerala. Periyar is known as the ‘lifeline of Kerala’. It originates from the Sivagiri peaks of Sundaramala hills in Tamilnadu. Periyar also holds most of the hydroelectric projects and dams in Kerala. Idukki dam, which is the largest hydroelectric project in Kerala lies on Periyar. It flows through the districts of Idukki and Ernakulam and fell into Kodungallur lake (Arabian sea). Periyar is also known as ‘Aluvapuzha’. It divides into Marthamdan river and Mangalapuzha from Aluva. Chourni is the old name of Periyar which is mentioned in Arthasasthra. Nowadays, the lower reaching of Periyar is highly polluted. The industries in Eloor industrial zone discharge waste into Periyar. Aluva, Kaladi, Malayattoor, and Neriyamangalam are some of the famous places on the banks of river Periyar.
Major Hydro-Electric Projects in Periyar
- Idukki hydroelectric project
- Pallivasal hydroelectric project
- Chenkulam hydro-electric project
- Panniyar hydro-electric project
- Neriyamangalam hydro-electric project
- Lower Periyar hydro-electric project
Major Tributaries of Periyar
- Mulla Periyar
- Bhuthathan Kettu
- Thutha Puzha
- Gayathri Puzha
- Kalpathi Puzha
- Kannadi Puzha
- Kunthi Puzha
- Malampuzha Dam
- Walayar Dam
- Mangalam Dam
- Pothundi Dam
- Meenkara Dam
- Chulliyar Dam
- Thirumoorthy Dam
- Aliyar Dam
- Upper Aliyar
- Chittur Puzha Dam
- Kanhirapuzha Dam
- Kakki Puzha
- Azhutha Puzha
- Manjeshwaram river in Kasargode district is the smallest and northernmost river in Kerala.
- Neyyar (flowing through Thiruvananthapuram) is the southernmost river in Kerala.
- Neyyar falls into the Arabian sea near Poovar (a place in Thiruvananthapuram district).
- Kasargode district accommodates most number of rivers in Kerala.
- Chandragiri puzha is the river flowing through Kasargode town.
- Mayyazhipuzha (Mahe river) is known as ‘English Channel of India‘ from the period of Britishers.
- Kuttiyadi river is known as the yellow river of Kerala.
- Kalladayar is one of the major rivers which fall into Ashtamudi Lake.
- Kulathupuzha and Chenthuruni river are the main tributaries of Kalladayar.
- Punalur, Pathanapuram, and Kunnathur are places located on the banks of Kalladayar.
- Palaruvi waterfalls are in Kalladayar.
- The river which is mentioned in the Booker prize-winning novel “God of Small Things” by Arundhati Roy is Meenachil river.
- Kottayam, Pala, Punjar, Erattupetta, Ettumanur are some of the famous places on the banks of Meenachil river.
- Karamanayar is the river which flows through Thiruvananthapuram city. Aruvikkara dam, which is the source of drinking water for the entire Thiruvananthapuram city is built on Karamanayar.
- Korappuzha differentiates northern Malabar and southern Malabar.
- Payaswini river in Kasargode borders Tulunadu and Kerala.
- Erumeli, Mundakkayam, Mullappalli, Niranam are located on the banks of Manimalayar.
- Thodupuzhayar, Kaaliyar and Kothayar meets at Muvattupuzha.
- Vaikkom and Piravam are places located on the banks of Muvattupuzha.
Courtesy: KeralaPSCMechanical – Google